Earth Geo Sciences Career Courses in Pakistan

Earth Geo Sciences Career Courses in Pakistan Jobs Scope Opportunities requirements complete guideline for admissions courses and income sources for all interested persons. Earth science or Geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils.

Geoscientists study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. They study the Earth’s geologic past and present by using sophisticated instruments to analyze the composition of earth, rock, and water. Many Geoscientists help to search for natural resources such as groundwater, metals, and petroleum. Others work closely with environmental and other scientists to preserve and clean up the environment.

Geology and Geophysics

It is one of several related subjects commonly grouped as the earth sciences, or geoscience, and geologists are earth scientists concerned primarily with rocks and derivative materials that make up the outer part of the earth.

To understand these materials, geologists make use of knowledge from other fields, such as physics, chemistry, and biology, thus, geological fields such as geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, and paleontology, now important disciplines in their own right, incorporate other sciences, enabling geologists to understand better the working of earth processes through time.

Geography is the science and investigation of the strong and fluid issue that comprises the Earth. The field of geography includes the investigation of the creation, structure, physical properties, elements, and history of Earth materials, and the procedures by which they are shaped, moved, and changed. The field is a noteworthy scholarly order, and is additionally vital for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, information about and relief of normal perils, some designing fields, and comprehension past atmospheres and conditions with reference to display day environmental change.

Geophysics applies the physical standards to examine the essential structure and development of earth. Geophysics is worried about quakes, the birth and demolition of planets, volcanic emissions, the development of the structural plates at the Earth’s surface and furthermore with the continuous ascent of land once secured by ice sheets.

The major branches of Earth science are described below.
  • Geology.
  • Oceanography.
  • Meteorology and Climatology.
  • Astronomy.


Earth Geo Sciences Career Courses in Pakistan Jobs Scope Opportunities


  • Investigate the materials, processes, products and history of the Earth.
  • Provide basic information to society for solving problems and establishing policy for resource management, environmental protection, public health, safety and welfare.
  • Seek to reconstruct the past and anticipate the future By applying knowledge of forces that shape the Earth
  • Gather and interpret data about the Earth for the purpose of increasing our understanding and improving the quality of human life.
  • Study and help to mitigate natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods and landslides.


  • Search for oil and mineral deposits, as well as water and energy resources
  • Study underground detection of nuclear explosions,
  • Provide information for use in constructing bridges, dams, buildings and others.
  • Are concerned with earthquakes and the internal structure and development of the earth.
  • Study the earth’s interior and its vibrations caused by earthquakes and man-made explosions.
  • Map the earth’s surface and explain the variations found.
  • determine the positions, elevations, and distances between points on the earth, and measure the intensity and direction of gravitational influences, with the aid of satellites
  • Geophysicists involved in the atmosphere investigate the earth’s magnetic and electric fields, and compare its outer atmosphere with those of other planets.


Geology and geophysics offer numerous specialties. The following list gives a glimpse of what neuroscientists do in these disciplines and a variety of sub-disciplines.

Atmospheric scientists study weather processes; the global dynamics of climate; solar radiation and its effects; and the role of atmospheric chemistry in ozone depletion, climate change, and pollution.

Engineering Geologists apply geological data, techniques, and principles to the study of rock and soil surficial materials and ground water; they investigate geologic factors that affect structures such as bridges, buildings, airports, and dams.

Environmental geologists study the interaction between the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and human activities. They work to solve problems associated with pollution, waste management, urbanization, and natural hazards, such as flooding and erosion.

Geo-chemists use physical and inorganic chemistry to investigate the nature and distribution of major and trace elements in ground water and Earth materials; Petroleum Geochemist use organic chemistry to study the composition of fossil fuel (coal, oil, and gas) deposits.

Geo-chronologists use the rates of decay of certain radioactive elements in rocks to determine their age and the time sequence of events in the history of the Earth.

Geologists study the materials, processes, products, physical nature, and history of the Earth.

Geo-morphologists study Earth’s landforms and landscapes in relation to the geologic and climatic processes and human activities, which form them.

Glacial geologists study the physical properties and movement of glaciers and ice sheets.

Hydrologists are concerned with water from the moment of precipitation until it evaporates into the atmosphere or is discharged into the ocean; for example, they study river systems to predict the impacts of flooding.

Marine geologists investigate the ocean-floor and ocean-continent boundaries; they study ocean basins, continental shelves, and the coastal environments on continental borders.

Meteorologists study the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomena, including the weather.

Mineralogists study mineral formation, composition, and properties.

Oceanographers investigate the physical, chemical, biological, and geologic dynamics of oceans.

Sedimentologists study the nature, origin, distribution, and alteration of sediments, such as sand, silt, and mud. Oil, gas, coal and many mineral deposits occur in such sediments.

Seismologists study earthquakes and analyze the behavior of earthquake waves to interpret the structure of the Earth.

Soil scientists study soils and their properties to determine how to sustain agricultural productivity and to detect and remediate contaminated soils.

Structural geologists analyze Earth’s forces by studying deformation, fracturing, and folding of the Earth’s crust.

Stratigrapher: They study the stratified rocks, sediments and volcanics and their correlation, particularly their ages, compositions, and relationships to other rock layers. Stratigraphy provides clues about the earth’s past and predicts what types of rocks lie below the ground and to understand geologic processes.

Economic Geologist: Explore for and develop geologic materials that have profitable uses.  They are involved in the analysis, exploration, and exploitation of geological materials of use to humans, such as fuels, metals and nonmetallic minerals, water, and geothermal energy. Kindred fields include the science of locating economic or strategic minerals (exploration geology), processing ores, and the practical application of geological theories to mining.

Military Geologist: They apply  geologic knowledge to the warfare.

Forensic Geologist: They use  geological evidences in crime detection’s. They study rocks, minerals, fossils and other natural and synthetic materials in connection with the criminal cases.


Admission Requirements


MS/ M.Phill (if BS/M.Sc.)


4 Years

2 Years

3-5 Years

  • FSc. Pre-medical
  • Equivalence if other than FSc (A’Level etc…)
  • Entry Test for BS

Qualities Required

Job Opportunities

  • Scientific aptitude
  • A strong background in biology and Chemistry
  • Paying Attention to Detail
  • Analytical & Critical Thinking
  • Observation
  • Persistence
  • Integrity
  • Cooperation
  • Team spirit
  • Government Departments
  • Geological Survey Organization
  • United Nations
  • Ministry of Petroleum
  • Oil & Gas Development Companies
  • Irrigation
  • Agricultural Firms
  • ForestService
  • Environmental Firms
  • Construction and engineering companies
  • Exploration and consulting firms
  • Geothermal Energy Sector
  • Major Dams/Dam sites
  • Army Corps of Engineers
  • Mining and quarrying companies
  • Mines & Minerals Department of the Government
  • Petroleum and natural gas companies
  • Natural resource companies,
  • Universities and Colleges
Specific careers you could pursue as a graduate of the Earth Sciences program
  • Environmental Consultant.
  • Groundwater Specialist.
  • Mining or Marine Engineer.
  • Environmental Scientist.
  • Geologist or Marine Geologist.
  • Paleontologist.
  • Petroleum Geologist.
  • Geochemist.


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